Transaction Publishers. Used - Good. Shows some signs of wear, and may have some markings on the inside. Transaction Publishers, This book has hardback covers. With usual stamps and markings, In fair condition, suitable as a study copy. Dust Jacket in fair condition. Some underlining.. Seller: wordbank books Published: Condition: Very Good. Second printing. Second printing, , hardcover with green cloth boards in dust jacket, octavo, pp. Book good with handsome boards and tight binding, text has erasable pencil marginalia throughout.
- Queen and Consort: Elizabeth and Philip: 60 Years of Marriage;
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- International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society | Home.
DJ near fine with mild toning and foxing. Printed in English. Excellent Quality, Service and customer satisfaction guaranteed! Orders ship the same or next business day. Customer satisfaction guaranteed.
Mail us if you have any questions. Analyses the sources of support for communism, fascism and other popular movements. Red cloth boards. Yellowing to leaves and foxing.
Electronic Journals - Sociology Research Sources - LibGuides at Northern Illinois University
Edgewear to corners and spine. Seller: 2ndHandBooks. Very Good. Disclaimer:A copy that has been read, but remains in clean condition. All pages are intact, and the cover is intact. The spine may show signs of wear. Pages can include limited notes and highlighting, and the copy can include previous owner inscriptions. Dust jacket quality is not guaranteed. The politics of mass society.
Kornhauser, William Glencoe, Ill. Good in fair dust jacket. Includes bibliography. First edition.. London: Routledge And Kegan Paul, Book and Jacket appear to have hardly been read and are both in Fine condition throughout.
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- Katerinas Wish.
Hard Cover. A new revolutionary class emerged from among the freemen, small property owners, and middle-class burghers of the medieval period to challenge and overthrow the privilege and power of the feudal aristocracy. The members of the bourgeoisie or capitalist class were revolutionary in the sense that they represented a radical change and redistribution of power in European society. Their power was based in the private ownership of industrial property, which they sought to protect through the struggle for property rights, notably in the English Civil War — and the French Revolution — The development of capitalism inaugurated a period of world transformation and incessant change through the destruction of the previous class structure, the ruthless competition for markets, the introduction of new technologies, and the globalization of economic activity.
The proletariat were made up largely of guild workers and serfs who were freed or expelled from their indentured labour in feudal guild and agricultural production and migrated to the emerging cities where industrial production was centred. The new labour relationship was based on a contract. However, as Marx pointed out, this meant in effect that workers could sell their labour as a commodity to whomever they wanted, but if they did not sell their labour they would starve. The capitalist had no obligations to provide them with security, livelihood, or a place to live as the feudal lords had done for their serfs.
The source of a new class antagonism developed based on the contradiction of fundamental interests between the bourgeois owners and the wage labourers: where the owners sought to reduce the wages of labourers as far as possible to reduce the costs of production and remain competitive, the workers sought to retain a living wage that could provide for a family and secure living conditions.
For Marx, what we do defines who we are. In historical terms, in spite of the persistent nature of one class dominating another, the element of humanity as creator existed. There was at least some connection between the worker and the product, augmented by the natural conditions of seasons and the rising and setting of the sun, such as we see in an agricultural society.
But with the bourgeois revolution and the rise of industry and capitalism, workers now worked for wages alone. The essential elements of creativity and self-affirmation in the free disposition of their labour was replaced by compulsion. The relationship of workers to their efforts was no longer of a human nature, but based purely on animal needs. Marx described the economic conditions of production under capitalism in terms of alienation. Alienation refers to the condition in which the individual is isolated and divorced from his or her society, work, or the sense of self and common humanity.
Marx defined four specific types of alienation that arose with the development of wage labour under capitalism. An industrial worker does not have the opportunity to relate to the product he or she is labouring on. Workers do not care if they are making watches or cars; they care only that their jobs exist.
In the same way, workers may not even know or care what products they are contributing to. A worker on a Ford assembly line may spend all day installing windows on car doors without ever seeing the rest of the car.
A cannery worker can spend a lifetime cleaning fish without ever knowing what product they are used for. Workers do not control the conditions of their jobs because they do not own the means of production. All ingredients must be combined in a particular order and in a particular quantity; there is no room for creativity or change. Everything is decided by the owners who then dictate orders to the workers. The workers relate to their own labour as an activity that does not belong to them. Alienation from others. Workers compete, rather than cooperate. Employees vie for time slots, bonuses, and job security.
Global Historical Sociology
Different industries and different geographical regions compete for investment. Even when a worker clocks out at night and goes home, the competition does not end.
Taken as a whole, then, alienation in modern society means that individuals have no control over their lives. There is nothing that ties workers to their occupations. Instead of being able to take pride in an identity such as being a watchmaker, automobile builder, or chef, a person is simply a cog in the machine. Even in feudal societies, people controlled the manner of their labour as to when and how it was carried out.
But why, then, does the modern working class not rise up and rebel? In response to this problem, Marx developed the concept of false consciousness. In fact, it is the ideology of the dominant class here, the bourgeoisie capitalists that is imposed upon the proletariat. Ideas such as the emphasis of competition over cooperation, of hard work being its own reward, of individuals as being the isolated masters of their own fortunes and ruins, etc. Therefore, to the degree that workers live in a state of false consciousness, they are less likely to question their place in society and assume individual responsibility for existing conditions.
Thus emerged the conditions for a successful working class revolution. Instead of just being an inert strata of society, the class could become an advocate for social improvements. Only once society entered this state of political consciousness would it be ready for a social revolution. Indeed, Marx predicted that this would be the ultimate outcome and collapse of capitalism. To summarise, for Marx, the development of capitalism in the 18th and 19th centuries was utterly revolutionary and unprecedented in the scope and scale of the societal transformation it brought about.